The 13 high school students participating in the workshop glanced at one another until one brave student addressed the entire class, starting a flurry of conversation: "Any ideas? The program begins with lessons in abstract algebra and number theory that students use to understand theoretical cryptography during lessons later in the workshop. Because of student feedback from LLCipher's inaugural year in , Yakoubov extended each lesson from two to six hours.
RSA is one of the most common methods to secure data and uses slightly different math from El Gamal.
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Both RSA and El Gamal use modular arithmetic, a type of math in which integers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value, i. El Gamal uses a very large prime number as a modulus; RSA uses a very large composite number, i. During the final day of the course, students toured several Lincoln Laboratory facilities, such as the anechoic chambers and the Flight Test Facility.
After the tour, students listened to a guest lecture from Emily Shen of the Secure Resilient Systems and Technology Group on a more specialized cryptography topic. Shen explained secure multiparty computation, a tool that allows multiple users with secret inputs to compute a joint function on their inputs without having to reveal anything beyond the output of the joint function. To demonstrate the concept, students participated in an activity to find out whether the majority of the group likes pie or cake without each student revealing his or her preference.
First, the group assigned pie and cake a binary representation — 0 for pie and 1 for cake.
The group also picked a modulus larger than the size of the group; in this case, the modulus was The first participant secretly chose an auxiliary value between 0 and 13, added his vote, 0 or 1, to that value, and then used modular arithmetic to get a new value. For example, if he chose an auxiliary value of 13 and his vote was 1, he took the remainder modulo of 14 to get a total of 0. He then passed on the sum to the next student. This pattern continued until the last student gave her value to the original participant, who then subtracted the secret auxiliary number from the last value.
The remaining value represented the amount of votes for cake and indicated whether the majority of the group likes cake or pie. It's an interesting intersection of math and computer science to which people are not often exposed," says Shen. She hopes that students realize that math can be fun and can be applied to complex and exciting real-life problems. Following the program, students indicated that they were interested in taking computer science courses in college and hope to aim for careers in science, technology, engineering, and math fields.
We were doing things that seemed impossible at first glance. I definitely feel smarter and more empowered now than when we started. MIT News Office.
Browse or. The optimal control of resources is organized with a hierarchical control structure and performed in two stages. A cloud-based computation platform provides global control functions based on model predictive control whereas a closed-loop local device manages actual monitoring and control of field components.
In this architecture, load forecasts on a small scale a single residential or tertiary building are needed as inputs of the predictive control problem. The microforecasting module aimed at providing such inputs was designed to be flexible, adaptive, and able to treat data with low time resolution. The module includes alternative forecasting techniques, such as autoregressive integrated moving average ARIMA , neural networks, and exponential smoothing, allowing the application of the right forecasting strategy each time.
The presented test results are based on a dataset acquired during a monitoring campaign in two pilot systems, installed during the ER Project in public buildings. Power consumption seasonality. Box plots of working days power consumption.
The x-axis reports day ours, while y-axis indicates power consumption kW. Box plots of weekend days power consumption. Daily forecasts vs. Abstract To achieve maximum profit by dispatching a battery storage system in an arbitrage operation, multiple factors must be considered. While revenue from the application is determined by the time variability of the electricity cost, the profit will be lowered by costs resulting from [ To achieve maximum profit by dispatching a battery storage system in an arbitrage operation, multiple factors must be considered.
While revenue from the application is determined by the time variability of the electricity cost, the profit will be lowered by costs resulting from energy efficiency losses, as well as by battery degradation. In this paper, an optimal dispatch strategy is proposed for storage systems trading on energy arbitrage markets. The dispatch is based on a computationally-efficient implementation of a mixed-integer linear programming method, with a cost function that includes variable-energy conversion losses and a cycle-induced battery capacity fade.
The parametrisation of these non-linear functions is backed by in-house laboratory tests. A detailed analysis of the proposed methods is given through case studies of different cost-inclusion scenarios, as well as battery investment-cost scenarios. The findings underline the significance of considering both ageing and efficiency in battery system dispatch optimisation. Red lines indicate median values, blue boxes lower and upper quartiles, black whiskers indicate one standard deviation, and red marks indicate outliers.
The nominal power rating of 36 kW for the inverter is indicated with a dotted line. This crucial transition will tackle environmental harms associated with conventional energy sources, especially in this age where a greater concern regarding sustainability and environmental protection exists. The Short-Term Price Forecast information as an important decision-making tool for market players will guide the cost side dispatch strategy, alongside with the storage availability.
Different scenarios were examined to highlight the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Where yellow, green and blue represent the PV, wind and hydro generation, respectively, light blue represents pumping periods, brown buying periods and orange selling periods. In turn, purple represents discharge periods, and lilac periods of charging the battery bank.
Students unlock the secrets of cryptography
Black represents the existing load level. Real Prices and State of Charge evolution for the summer week. Where yellow, green and blue represent the PV, wind and hydro generation, respectively, light blue represents pumping periods, black for diesel generation periods. Abstract Standalone microgrids with photovoltaic PV solutions could be a promising solution for powering up off-grid communities.
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However, this type of application requires the use of energy storage systems ESS to manage the intermittency of PV production. The most commonly used ESSs are lithium-ion [ Standalone microgrids with photovoltaic PV solutions could be a promising solution for powering up off-grid communities. The most commonly used ESSs are lithium-ion batteries Li-ion , but this technology has a low lifespan, mostly caused by the imposed stress. To reduce the stress on Li-ion batteries and extend their lifespan, hybrid energy storage systems HESS began to emerge.
Although the utilization of HESSs has demonstrated great potential to make up for the limitations of Li-ion batteries, a proper power management strategy is key to achieving the HESS objectives and ensuring a harmonized system operation. This paper proposes a novel power management strategy based on an artificial neural network for a standalone PV system with Li-ion batteries and super-capacitors SC HESS.
A typical standalone PV system is used to demonstrate and validate the performance of the proposed power management strategy. To demonstrate its effectiveness, computational simulations with short and long duration were performed.
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The results show a minimization in Li-ion battery dynamic stress and peak current, leading to an increased lifespan of Li-ion batteries. Moreover, the proposed power management strategy increases the level of SC utilization in comparison with other well-established strategies in the literature. Within this framework, it is of crucial importance to guarantee the best trade-off between energy performance and indoor environmental quality IEQ.
The implications of a global refurbishment [ The implications of a global refurbishment scenario on thermal and visual comfort are assessed in this paper pertaining to an existing office building. The retrofit actions applied to achieve the nZEB target consist of a combination of envelope and technical building systems refurbishment measures, involving both HVAC and lighting. Energy and comfort calculations were carried out through dynamic simulation using Energy Plus and DIVA, for the thermal and visual performance assessments, respectively. The research presents a detailed approach applicable to further analyses aimed at optimizing the energy efficiency measures in order to reduce the imbalance between visual and thermal comfort and to ensure the best performance in both domains.
TSCOPF studies extend well-known optimal power flow models by introducing the electromechanical oscillations of synchronous machines. One [ One of the main approaches in TSCOPF studies includes the discretized differential equations that represent the dynamics of the system in the optimization model. This paper analyzes the impact of different implicit and explicit numerical integration methods on the solution of a TSCOPF model and the effect of the integration time step.
In particular, it studies the effect on the power dispatch, the total cost of generation, the accuracy of the calculation of electromechanical oscillations between machines, the size of the optimization problem and the computational time. Abstract This paper investigates the regulatory rules of market transparency which could be applied within the wholesale electricity market and market for frequency and voltage control in the Web-of-Cells WoC decentralized power control architecture, which has been developed in the ELECTRA Project to respond [ In this decentralized functional architecture for frequency and voltage control, the European Union EU power grid is divided into grid control areas, i.
Encryption is less secure than we thought | MIT News
In order to foster the practical realization of the WoC-based architecture, the related wholesale electricity market and market for frequency and voltage control are proposed considering the competitive market principles, including transparency. The critical review of the existing EU regulations dealing with this issue suggests respecting the valid provisions on market transparency while tailoring them into the WoC-based architecture.
Moreover, in order to take into account the WoC peculiarities, a set of integrations to the current regulatory rules is also proposed, addressing: 1 disclosure of information in respect to attributes of emerging technologies such as renewable energy sources RES , distributed energy resources DER , storage; 2 provision of generation and load forecast information; 3 process of procurement of flexibilities; 4 retail market transparency; 5 disclosure of privacy-sensitive household attributes; and 6 disclosure of information on market for frequency and voltage control.
Abstract The study presented in this paper aims to show the impact of introducing a priority-based internal power flow management system on the local energy market of prosumers with solar panels, fuels cells and batteries. The community used for the study is based on [ The study presented in this paper aims to show the impact of introducing a priority-based internal power flow management system on the local energy market of prosumers with solar panels, fuels cells and batteries.
The community used for the study is based on the Open Energy Systems OES , in which 19 autonomous subsystems, equipped with batteries, solar panels and AC grid connection are interconnected via a DC power bus. For the simulation purposes, fuel cell, modeled after Ene-Farm, is added to the original configuration. Each standalone system has internal, priority-based, agent, capable of scheduling the operating hours of the fuels cell to maximize the utilization of the generation and minimize curtailment.
The energy market is based on a simplified version of the Zaraba, a continuous double auction algorithm used by the Japanese Stock Exchange, in which prosumer can submit a bid for a future timeslot. The preliminary numerical evaluation is based on the results from several simulations using different versions of the internal management system. Abstract Transmission networks recently faced new technical and economic challenges. The direct use of advanced technologies and modern methods could solve these issues.
This paper discusses the potential application of straightforward technology such as high-temperature low-sag conductors HTLScs as an additional measure for the [ Transmission networks recently faced new technical and economic challenges. This paper discusses the potential application of straightforward technology such as high-temperature low-sag conductors HTLScs as an additional measure for the protection and effective operation of overhead power lines. An evaluation was conducted to determine an approach for selecting the cross-sectional area and type of conductor with respect to a fault current limitation.